Still, I eventually realized that both elements, of outright madness and inner quiet and repression, are in Gilman's partially autobiographical sketch of a woman's descent into madness, a descent not stopped but escalated by the medical authorities who were supposed to help her. After researching Gilman for this project, I have realized yet another thing about the author whose words caused the hair on the back of my neck to rise during that long ago dramatic session. She deserves far wider recognition than she has gotten, even today, even among people who should know more about her.
People who have taken college American lit class probably know of or have read "The Yellow Wall- Paper." There has even been a film version of the short story (one I intend to try and rent some day but I am sure it will disappoint me as popular versions almost always do). But most people have no idea of the extent of the work that Gilman published. Most people do not even know that Gilman was best known, in her own lifetime, as a reformer, a woman most concerned with the practical aspects of making the world a better place. Gilman's subject matter ranges from very short articles on race relations such as "A Suggestion on the Negro Problem" to discussions of the impact of birth control on women's rights in such articles as "Progress Through Birth Control." In addition to her published work, Gilman was a featured lecturer in the United States, England, Holland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Berlin (Lahnstein 1). Reports on many of these lectures were published in periodicals such as The New York Tribune, the Boston Advertiser, the Boston Post and the New York Times. She wrote three "Utopic" books: Moving the Mountain (1911), Herland (1915), and With Her in Ourland (1916). She also wrote approximately 490 poems, some of which were collected in the In This Our World in 1893 and in Suffrage Songs and Verses in 1911.
Forty-three of Gilman's 186 short stories have been compiled in at least two major collections, "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories, edited by Robert Shulman and The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader, edited by Ann J. Lane. These short stories originally appeared in such varied popular magazines as Saturday Evening Post and Harpers' Bazaar. When Gilman was not being published in those serials, she self-published the 86 issues of Forerunner magazine (Lahnstein 1). In addition to the short stories and verse that Gilman wrote, she also published five dramatic dialogues; these were serialized in Kate Field's Washington, Impress (of which Gilman was, for a time, an editor), and The Forerunner. Much of this work has been neglected by scholars, who tend to concentrate on "The Yellow Wall-paper."
Gilman was also a prolific writer of journalistic work and social commentary. She wrote over a thousand pieces of non-fiction. These appeared in such magazines as Woman's Journal, Housekeeper's Weekly, Impress, Cosmopolitan, New Nation, The New York Times, and The Saturday Evening Post, to name only a fraction, and their topics reflect Gilman's interest in everything from chewing gum in public to socialism. Some of her non-fiction work has been collected in Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Non-Fiction Reader (1991) and Her Progress Towards Utopia: With Selected Writings (1994). Her most famous full-length work, Women and Economics (1898), was translated into German, Dutch, Italian, Hungarian, Japanese, French and Russian (Lahnstein 4). Vassar college used this book as a textbook for a period of time (Lahnstein 4).
In addition to Gilman's own writing, there were many articles written about her-- Gary Scharnhorst lists seventy-eight articles, between 1891 to 1982, in which references to Gilman appeared. Gilman is even referenced in Upton Sinclair's pivotal critique of capitalism The Jungle (Scharnhorst 207). Still, not all of what was said about Gilman was positive-- there were numerous articles about her divorce from Charles Stetson and a number of articles with titles that are variations of "Mrs. Gilman Defended" (203-10). She experienced a literary feud with Ambrose Bierce that left her feeling angry and persecuted; this feeling was easily justified by Bierce's vicious attacks on everything from Gilman's poetry to her sexuality (see # 36).(1)
So far, Gilman's contributions are not nearly as well known as they should be; this may be a state that is changing, however as more of these works become available through reprint. Much of her work still remains difficult to access, as it has only appeared in the Forerunner or other even harder to find serials. There are only two hardback copies of the collection Suffrage Songs and Verses listed in the World Cat, although this work is available on microfiche. It is also available on the Internet (see my website section, page 54).
Despite the difficulty in finding some of her work, scholarship on Gilman is fairly active. Since the 1990 publication of a major and well-received biography by Ann J. Lane (see #27), Gilman's work has continued to garner steady scholarly attention. Her MLA citations do not nearly rank in volume with the likes of such well-studied authors as Hemingway, but she has a pretty good showing for a woman who is mostly associated with one short story.
Unfortunately, the inaccessibility of much of Gilman's work has, as Gary Scharnhorst points out, "demonstrably affected critical assessments of her work. Even the most careful of the recent Gilman scholars commit egregious errors of fact in their publications" (vii). Scharnhorst's bibliography of Gilman's work, published in 1985 (see # 40) is an invaluable resource and should be the first book in the hands of anyone who wishes to do significant work on Gilman.
Probably the most amazing thing about Charlotte Perkins Gilman's works, today, is the large number of "new" books being published "by" her. Many of her books have been republished, and even published for the first time, in the last few years. Just after her death in 1935, most of her work went out of print and so has not been seen since. The revival of interest in Gilman can be traced, in part, to the 1973 republication of a collection of short stories, which included "The Yellow Wall-Paper" (Lahnstein 3). What this growing interest in republication of her work indicates is that there should be an increasing interest in scholarly criticism of Gilman's works in addition to "The Yellow Wall-Paper." So far, many of these newer books do not even appear in an MLA search for Gilman's works or in the First Search catalogue, but they should begin to appear within the next year or two in these academic databases. I found these newest works (for example, "Begnina Machiavelli") primarily through online bookstore pages; most college libraries do not have copies of the books. However, since scholars no longer have to rely on college bookstores and libraries to provide us with copies, there shouldn't be much trouble for interested parties to obtain a copy of these works. Perhaps then the scope of Gilman's work will come to be better known. She certainly deserves the attention.
On the Organization of this Guide
This guide is designed primarily as a reference for graduate level researchers. I have endeavored to explain editorial choices carefully in the headnotes to each individual section. However, a brief discussion of the general plan may be useful. Some repetition may appear in the individual headnotes but this is necessary so that each section may stand on its own.
This guide limits itself to critical works published since 1990. Readers who wish to find information on criticism published before 1990 should look at Ann Lane's biography (see #27) which lists some criticism, Gary Scharnhorst's Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography, (see # 40) which has a short list of criticism, and, if it is available, Bobby Lahnstein's MA Thesis (see #26).
I have used some abbreviations and shorthand symbols in this guide, the explanation of these symbols follows:
CPG= Charlotte Perkins Gilman
TYW= The Yellow Wallpaper
** = I have not personally seen this copy and am trusting bibliographic citations from someone else to be accurate.
= published serially in the Forerunner. I have used this symbol rather than listing republication information as MLA suggests because these stories appeared over such an extended period of time that the list is too long to include here. See Scharnhorst's bibliography for complete reprinting information.
Final note: I have not personally seen most of Gilman's primary works and I am relying upon the bibliography by Gary Scharnhorst for citation information. The works I have seen, however, match up with the information that Scharnhorst lists, therefore, I am sure his work is reliable. Again, the reader is urged to double-check any information that is crucial to their own research.
This section contains many of the major and minor works that Gilman published during her lifetime, as well as several that were published or reprinted posthumously. The works are listed here by genre and in order of the year (rather than listing the monthly appearances of many of the serials) of their publication date. When several works appear in the same year, they are listed alphabetically within the year group. As of yet, there is no complete collection of Gilman's poetry , non-fiction, and fictional works.
I have only listed the two collections of Gilman's poetry that have been printed. A number of her poems were reprinted in the appendix of The Living of CPG. Scholars interested in the poetry that is not collected, but which Gilman may have intended to publish, should also look at "Reconstructing Here Also: On the Later Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman," by Gary Scharnhorst (# 41). I have also included the microfiche number of Suffrage Songs and Verses because it is impossible to get the book otherwise.
In This Our World. Oakland: McCombs & Vaughn, 1893; London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1895. 2nd ed.; San Francisco: Press of James H. Barry, 1895.
Suffrage Songs and Verses. New York: Charlton Co., 1911; Microfilm. New Haven: Research Publications, 1977, History of Women #6558.
Gilman published 186 short stories in various magazines. Many
of these short stories were included in her self-published journal
These short stories have been largely ignored by critics. I have
listed here only those individual short stories that have been
collected since Gilman's death in 1937, In my citation, I have
listed the first place where the story appeared and the place
where the modern reader can easily access the story. (For information
on subsequent serial reprintings of the story, see # 40.)
"Circumstances Alter Cases." Kate Field's Washington 23 July 1890: 55-56. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 32-38.
"That Rare Jewel." Women's Journal 17 May 1890: 158. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 20-24.
"The Unexpected." Kate Field's Washington 21 May 1890: 335-6. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 25-31.
"An Extinct Angel." Kate Field's Washington 23 Sept 1891:199-200. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 48-50.
"The Giant Wistaria." New England Magazine 4 (1891): 480-85. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 39-47.
"The Yellow Wall-paper." New England Magazine 5 (1892): 647-56; Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1899; NY: Feminist Press, 1973 Afterword Elaine Hedges; Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. Introduction Robert Shulman.
"The Rocking-Chair." Worthington's Illustrated 1 (1893): 453-59. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 51-61.
"An Elopement." San Francisco Call 10 July 1893: 1. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 66-68.
"Deserted." San Francisco Call 17 July 1893: 1-2. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 62-65.
"Through This." Kate Field's Washington 13 Sept 1893: 166. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 69-72.
"A Day's Berryin.'" Impress 13 Oct 1894: 4-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 78-82.
"Five Girls." Impress 1 Dec 1894: 5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 83-86.
"One Way Out."Impress 29 Dec 1894: 4-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 87-91.
"The Misleading of Pendleton Oaks." Impress 6 Oct 1894: 4-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 73-77.
"An Unnatural Mother." Impress 16 Feb 1895: 4-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 98-106.
"An Unpatented Process." Impress 12 Jan 1895: 4-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 92-97.
"According to Solomon." Forerunner 1:2 (1909):1-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 122-129.
"Three Thanksgivings." Forerunner 1 (1909): 5-12. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 107-121.
"What Diantha Did." Forerunner 1 (1909-11); NY: Charlton Co., 1910; London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.
"The Cottagette." Forerunner 1:10 (1910): 1-5. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 130-138.
"When I Was a Witch." Forerunner 1 (1910): 1-6. The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader. Ed. Ann J. Lane. NY: Pantheon, 1980. 21-31.
"In Two Houses." Forerunner 2:7 (1911): 171-77. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 159-171.
"Making a Change." Forerunner 2:12 (1911): 311-315 . "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 182-190.
"Moving the Mountain." Forerunner 2 (1911); NY: Charlton Co., 1911; The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader. Ed. Ann J. Lane. NY: Pantheon, 1980. 178-188.
"The Crux." Forerunner 2 (1910); NY: Charlton Co., 1911; The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader. Ed. Ann J. Lane. NY: Pantheon, 1980. 116-122.
"The Jumping-off Place." Forerunner 2:4 (1911): 87-93. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 148-158.
"The Widow's Might." Forerunner 2:1 (1911): 3-7. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 139-147.
"Turned." Forerunner 2:9 (1911): 227-32. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 182-191.
"Mrs. Elder's Idea." Forerunner 3:2 (1912): 29-32. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 191-199.
"Their House." Forerunner 3:12 (1912): 309-14. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 200-209.
"A Council of War." Forerunner 4:8 (1913): 197-201. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 235-243.
"Bee Wise." Forerunner 4:7 (1913): 169-173. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 226-234.
"Her Beauty." Forerunner 4:2 (1913): 29-33. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 210-217.
"Mrs. Hines's Money." Forerunner 4:4 (1913): 85-89. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 218-226.
"A Partnership." Forerunner 5:6 (1914): 141-45. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 253-261.
"Begnina Machiavelli." Forerunner 5 (1914); NY: Such and Such Publishing, 1998.
"Fulfilment." Forerunner 5:3 (1914): 57-61. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.
"If I Were a Man." Physical Culture 32 (1914): 31-34. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 262-268.
"Mr. Peebles's Heart." Forerunner 5:9 (1914): 225-29. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 269-276.
"Dr. Clair's Place." Forerunner 6:6 (1915): 141-45. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 295-303.
"Girls and Land." Forerunner 6:5 (1915): 113-117. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 286-294.
"Herland." The Forerunner 6 (1915); NY: Pantheon Books, 1979.
"Mrs. Merrill's Duties." Forerunner 6:3 (1915): 57-61. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 277-285.
"A Surplus Woman." Forerunner 7:5 (1916): 113-18. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 304-313.
"Joan's Defender." Forerunner 7:6 (1916): 141-45. "The Yellow Wall-Paper" and Other Stories. Ed. Robert Shulman. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 314-322.
"The Girl in the Pink Hat." Forerunner 7 (1916): 39-46. The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader. Ed. Ann J. Lane. NY: Pantheon, 1980. 39-45.
"With Her in Ourland: Sequel to Herland." Forerunner 7 (1916); Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997.
Posthumous First-Time Printings (fiction)
Unpunished: A Mystery. NY: Feminist Press, 1998.
Drama and Dialogues
Gilman's drama is only available through the original printings. Several of the dramatic dialogues were printed or reprinted in Forerunner, but others are virtually inaccessible. For this reason, in this section, I have listed any re-printing, as well as the original source. I have also listed other items which relate to the entry here, for cross-reference. This is one place where re-publication of Gilman should go in the future.
"Dame Nature Interviewed on the Woman Question as It Looks to Her" Kate Field's Washington (1890): 138-40.
"The Twilight." Impress (10 Nov 1894): 4-5.
See also "Story Studies," Impress 17 Nov 1894: 5, and "The Story Guessers," Impress 24 Nov 1894: 5.
Rpt. In Time and the Hour 19 Feb 1898: 7-9.
"Three Women." Forerunner 2 (1911): 134.
"Something to Vote For." Forerunner 2 (1911) 143-53.
See also "About Dramatic Rights in 'Three Women,' and 'Something to Vote For,' Forerunner 2 (1911): 179, and "Three Women" Success 11 (1908): 490-91, 522-26.
Gilman wrote over a thousand works of non-fiction-- I have listed here all of the book-length works and a selection of serial works. The serial non-fiction that I have listed gives a good cross-section of the varied topics that Gilman wrote about, but it in no way represents anywhere near a complete list. I have included at least one entry that Gilman wrote per year. Gilman did not write much in the years 1930, 1933 and 1934. During these last few years of her life, no serial work is published and only two poems. She offers a very brief explanation for this
in her autobiography.
Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation Between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1898. Ed. Carl N. Degler. NY: Harper & Row, 1966, and Source Book Press.
Concerning Children. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1900, 1901; London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1900.
The Home: Its Work and Influence. NY: McClure, Phillips & Co., 1903; London: William Heinemann, 1904; NY: Source Book Press, 1970.
Human Work. NY: McClure, Phillips & Co., 1904.
The Man-Made World; or, Our Androcentric Culture. NY: Charlton Co., 1911; NY: Source Book Press, 1970.
Our Changing Morality. Ed. Freda Kirchway. NY: Boni, 1930. 53-66.
His Religion and Hers: A Study of the Faith of Our Fathers and the Work of Our Mothers. NY and London: Century Co., 1923; London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1924; Westport: Hyperion Press, 1976.
Selected Short and Serial Non-Fiction
"Why Women Do Not Reform Their Dress." Woman's Journal 9 Oct 1886: 338.
"A Protest Against Petticoats." Woman's Journal 8 Jan 1887: 60.
"The Providence Ladies Gymnasium.." Providence Journal 8 (1888): 2.
"How Much Must We Read?" Pacific Monthly 1 (1889): 43-44.
"Altering Human Nature." California Nationalist 10 May 1890: 10.
"Are Women Better Than Men?" Pacific Monthly 3 (1891): 9-11.
"A Lady on the Cap and Apron Question." Wasp 6 June 1891: 3.
"The Reactive Lies of Gallantry." Belford's ns 2 (1892): 205-8.
"The Vegetable Chinaman." Housekeeper's Weekly 24 June 1893: 3.
"The Saloon and Its Annex." Stockton Mail 4 (1893): 4.
"The Business League for Women." Impress 1 (1894): 2.
"Official Report of Woman's Congress." Impress 1 (1894): 3.
"John Smith and Armenia." Impress 12 Jan 1895: 2-3.
"The American Government." Woman's Column 6 June 1896: 3.
"When Socialism Began." American Fabian 3 (1897): 1-2.
"Causes and Uses of the Subjection of Women." Woman's Journal 24 Dec 1898: 410.
"The Automobile as a Reformer." Saturday Evening Post 3 June 1899: 778.
"Esthetic Dyspepsia." Saturday Evening Post 4 Aug 1900: 12.
"Ideals of Child Culture." Child Study For Mothers and Teachers. Ed Margaret Sangster. Philadelphia: Booklovers Library, 1901. 93-101.
"Should Wives Work?" Success 5 (1902): 139.
"Fortschritte der Frauen in Amerika." Neues Frauenleen 1:1 (1903): 2-5.
"The Passing of the Home in Great American Cities." Cosmopolitan 38 (1904): 137-47.
"The Beauty of a Block." Independent 14 July 1904: 67-72.
"The Home and the Hospital." Good Housekeeping 40 (1905): 9.
"Some Light on the [Single Woman's] 'Problem.'" American Magazine 62 (1906): 4270428.
"Social Darwinism." American Journal of Sociology 12 (1907): 713-14.
"A Suggestion on the Negro Problem." American Journal of Sociology 14 (1908): 78-85.
"How Home Conditions React Upon the Family." American Journal of Sociology 14 (1909): 592-605.
"Children's Clothing." Harper's Bazar 44 (1910): 24.
"On Dogs." Forerunner 2 (1911): 206-9.
"How to Lighten the Labor of Women." McCall's 40 (1912): 14-15, 77.
"What 'Love' Really Is." Pictorial Review 14 (1913): 11, 57.
"Gum Chewing in Public." New York Times 20 May 1914:12:5.
"A Rational Position on Suffrage/At the Request of the New York Times, Mrs. Gilman Presents the Best Arguments Possible in Behalf of Votes for Women." New York Times Magazine 7 Mar 1915: 14-15.
"What is Feminism?" Boston Sunday Herald Magazine 3 Sept 1916: 7.
"The Housekeeper and the Food Problem." Annals of the American Academy 74 (1917): 123-40.
"Concerning Clothes." Independent 22 June 1918: 478, 483.
"The Socializing of Education." Public 5 April 1919: 348-49.
"A Woman's Party." Suffragist 8 (1920): 8-9.
"Making Towns Fit to Live In." Century 102 (1921): 361-366.
"Cross-Examining Santa Claus." Century 105 (1922): 169-174.
"Is America Too Hospitable?" Forum 70 (1923): 1983-89.
"Toward Monogamy." Nation 11 June 1924: 671-73.
"The Nobler Male." Forum 74 (1925): 19-21.
"American Radicals. New York Jewish Daily Forward 1 (1926): 1.
"Progress through Birth Control." North American Review 224 (1927): 622-29.
"Divorce and Birth Control." Outlook 25 Jan 1928: 130-31.
"Feminism and Social Progress." Problems of Civilization. Ed. Baker Brownell. NY: D. Van Nostrand, 1929. 115-42.
"Sex and Race Progress." Sex in Civilization. Eds. V. F. Calverton and S. D. Schmalhausen. NY: Macaulay, 1929. 109-23.
No serial articles appear in 1930.
"Parasitism and Civilized Vice." Woman's Coming of Age. Ed. S. D. Schmalhausen. NY: Liveright, 1931. 110-26.
"Birth Control, Religion and the Unfit." Nation 27 Jan 1932: 108-109.
No serial articles appear in 1933-1934.
"The Right to Die." Forum 94 (1935): 297-300.
Forerunner 1-7: 1909-16. Microfiche. NY: Greenwood, 1968.
Gilman lectured throughout the US and Europe, and 90 reports of her performances exist. I have listed a few of these reports and the subject matter which they addressed, when it is not already obvious from the title. Just as with the serial non-fiction, these selections give a cross-section of the various topics which Gilman was interested in. In this section, I have also listed at least one lecture per year. I found this information in Scharnhorst's bibliography and am relying upon him for the subject matter of the lectures; I have also found that in some of the years when he lists no lectures, other sources do. It may be that since his bibliography was written, there have been new sources uncovered. The reader is advised to check any years that have none listed for themselves.
"Club News." Weekly Nationalist 21 June 1890: 6. [Re. "On Human Nature."]
"With Women Who Write." San Francisco Examiner. March 1891, 3:3. [Re. "The Coming Woman."]
"Safeguards Suggested for Social Evils." San Francisco Call 24 April 1892: 12:4.
"The Labor Movement." Alameda County Federation of Trades, 1893. Alameda County, CA Labor Union Meetings. 2 September 1892.
"Announcement." Impress 1 (1894): 2. [Re. Series of "Talks on Social Questions."]
"All the Comforts of a Home." San Francisco Examiner. 22 May 1895: 9. [Re. "Simplicity and Decoration."]
"The Washington Convention." Woman's Journal 15 Feb 1896: 49-50. [Re. California.]
"Woman Suffrage League." Boston Advertiser 10 Nov 1897: 8:1. [Re. "The Economic Basis of the Woman Question."]
"Bellamy Memorial Meeting." American Fabian 4: (1898): 3.
"An Evening With Kipling." Daily Argus 14 March 1899: 4:2.
"Scientific Training of Domestic Servants." Women and Industrial Life Vol 6 of International Congress of Women of 1899. Ed Countess of Aberdeen. London: T. Unwin Fisher, 1900. 109.
No lectures listed in 1901.
"Society and the Child." Brooklyn Eagle 11 Dec 1902: 8:4.
"Woman and Work/ Popular Fallacy that They are a Leisure Class, Says Mrs. Gilman." New York Tribune 26 Feb 1903: 7:1.
"A New Light on the Woman Question." Woman's Journal 25 April 1904: 76-77.
"Straight Talk by Mrs. Gilman is Looked For." San Francisco Call 16 July 1905: 33:2.
No lectures listed in 1906.
"Women and Social Service." Warren: National American Woman Suffrage Association, 1907.
"Higher Marriage Mrs. Gilman's Plea." New York Times 29 Dec 1908: 2:3.
"Three Women Leaders in Hub." Boston Post 7 Dec 1909: 1:1-2 and 14:5-6.
"Warless World When Women's Slavery Ends.' San Francisco Examiner 14 Nov 1910: 4:1.
"Lecture Given by Mrs. Gilman." San Francisco Call 15 Nov 1911: 7:3. [Re. "The Society-- Body and Soul."]
No lectures listed in 1912.
"Mrs. Gilman Assorts Sins." New York Times 3 June 1913: 3:8
"Adam the Real Rib, Mrs. Gilman Insists." New York Times. 19 Feb 1914: 9:3.
"Advocates a 'World City.'" New York Times 6 Jan 1915: 15:5. [Re. Arbitration of diplomatic disputes by an international agency.]
No lectures listed in 1916.
"The Listener." Boston Transcript 14 April 1917: 14:1. [Re. Announcement of lecture series.]
"Great Duty for Women After War." Boston Post 26 Feb 1918: 2:7.
"Mrs. Gilman Urges Hired Mother Idea." New York Times 23 Sept 1919: 36:1-2.
"Eulogize Susan B. Anthony." New York Times 16 Feb 1920: 15:6. [Re. Gilman and others eulogize Anthony on the centenary of her birth.]
"Walt Whitman Dinner." New York Times 1 June 1921: 16:7. [Gilman speaks at annual meeting of Whitman Society in New York.]
No lectures from 1922-1926 listed.
"Fiction of America Being Melting Pot Unmasked by CPG." Dallas Morning News 15 Feb 1926: 9:7-8 and 15:8.
Diaries, Journals and Letters
A Journey from Within: The Love Letters of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 1897-1900. Ed. Mary A. Hill. Lewisburg: Bucknill UP, 1995.
The Abridged Diaries of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 2 Vols. Ed. Denise D. Knight. n.p.:Virginia UP, 1998.
The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: An Autobiography. NY and London: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1935; NY: Arno Press, 1972; and Harper & Row, 1975.
Lane, Ann J. To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. NY: Pantheon, 1990.
Scharnhorst, Gary. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985.
Bibliographies of Gilman's Work
Scharnhorst, Gary. CPG: A Bibliography. NJ: Metuchen.
Most of these libraries have websites; for those that do, I have listed a URL. I found the information listed here by following several steps. The first step was finding the list that is included in Ann J. Lane's biography of Gilman, To Herland and Beyond. Lane's list is an incomplete one-- all she includes are the names of the different collections, there is no contact information. The next step was checking to see if the collections that Lane lists are still extant and, if so, what their contact information is. All but one of the libraries is easily found by typing the library name and the city where it is housed into a standard Internet search engine. Most of the collections have web sites that feature all the contact information listed below, along with more detailed information as to what the collections contain. The final collection listed, the Women's History Reclamation Project, was listed on the Charlotte Perkins Gilman Newsletter site, but not in Ann Lane's biography. The most difficult contact information to find was for the Rhode Island Historical Society. They do not appear, at this time, to have a web site. Since I could not find them on the Internet, I called long distance information. Luckily, I was able to get the society's phone number and address through information. This section is organized alphabetically by library/collection name.
I have not included a listing of the many libraries that have
one or two pieces of Gilman's work/correspondence. There is,
however, a list of all 30 libraries that contain Gilman or "other
related documents" in Scharnhorst, pp. 200-202.
Contains the Charles Walter Stetson correspondence.
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000
Phone: (510)642-6481 or (510)642-3781
John Hay Library
Contains the Charlotte Gilman-Lester Ward correspondence.
Brown University, Providence
20 Prospect Street
Providence, Rhode Island
Phone: (401) 863-3723 or (401)863-2148
Rhode Island Historical Society
Contains Charlotte Gilman's correspondence with Martha Luther
121 Hope Street
Providence, Rhode Island, 02906
Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America
Director: Mary Maples Dunn, Carl and Lily Pforsheimer Director
Contains the Charlotte Perkins Gilman Collection. This is
the largest collection of Gilman works anywhere, it has, according
to Gary Scharnhorst, "343 folders of letters, clippings
and photographs; as well as 77 holograph diaries, notebooks,
and account books; and 5 oversize folders" (200).
10 Garden Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-3630
Stowe Day Library
Contains the correspondence of Mary Westcott Perkins and Isabella
Vassar College Library
Features Charlotte Gilman's correspondence with Marian Whitney.
Box 20, 124 Raymond Ave
Poughkeepsie, NY 12604-0020
The Women's History Reclamation Project
Has a large collection of Gilman's work, including first editions
of her books, a full set of the Forerunner, and some of
her personal letters.
The Women's History Reclamation Project
2323 Broadway, Suite 103
San Diego, CA 92102
In this section I list those works that have been written about elements of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's work and life that have been published in the years since 1990. I include journal articles in addition and book-length works; they are arranged by alphabetical order of the authors' names rather than by genre.
I have chosen to restrict this bibliography to works published since 1990 because there is an extensive list of many of the important works before 1990 included in the appendix of Ann Lane's 1990 biography, To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, (#27) published by Pantheon, and the repetition of sources listed in that biography's publication seems unproductive. Readers can also find out more information about scholarship before 1990 in two other sources; one of these is Gary Scharnhorst's list of reviews of Gilman's works from 1891-1982 that can be found in Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography (#40). Another source wherein a researcher can find more about scholarship on Gilman before 1990 is Bobby Lahnstein's MA thesis (#26), published in 1994 at University of North Carolina. Lahnstein's annotated bibliography is an invaluable resource for anyone wishing to examine the basic trends in Gilman scholarship from 1973 to 1991, and it is available through Interlibrary loan. Other restrictions in scope that I have made include:
The annotations in this section are from a variety of sources. These sources include the Amazon.com website (available at <http://www.amazon.com>); Bobby Lahnstein's MA thesis; the Barnes & Nobles website (available at <http://www.barnesandnoble.com>); and the Wilson index. When the citation is from bookstore websites, or the Wilson index, it is because the book is currently not easily available; this is generally due to its newness or the fact that the book is out of print. Readers of this guide are urged to check those sources out for themselves as publishers' annotations are generally more advertising-based than informative. Also, since the Wilson index does not list source information, it is not the best possible descriptor. I have tried to not use these sources, and have only resorted to them when I could not find the original myself or a reliable citation. In order to decrease these sources' potential for misinformation, I have abridged such annotations to include only informative and not editorial comments (as to book contents, for example).
If quotations appear within the annotation, they are from the source being described. I have also chosen to vary my format slightly from standard MLA citations by numbering each entry in this section. I did this in order to provide easy referents between these citations.
1. Ammons, Elizabeth. "Writing Silence: 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Conflicting Stories: American Women Writers at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. NY: Oxford UP, 1991. 34-43, 207-208. **
"Compares Gilman's TYW with Frances Ellen Harper's Lola Leroy, asserting that the two writers, although not contemporaries, shared a common view of feminism. Sees TYW as ultimately depicting a woman's effort to use paper to connect women and thus feels that the end of the story represents dreams of female connectedness. Further explains that the 'mother-loss' that permeates the text foretells woman's concern with 'leaving the old century.'" (Lahnstein 80 )
2. Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucaldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction. 31(1994): 39-46. **
"The writer examines Gilman's TYW. He notes that Gilman dramatizes her own experience in a sanatorium in this journalistic/clinical account of a woman's gradual descent into madness. He notes that the room in which the narrator is confined is not unlike that described in Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish, patterned after Jeremy Bentham's 18th century Panopticon. The Panopticon developed, he explains, into an unscrupulous method of inquisition that perpetuated fear and bred paranoia. Like the narrator's room in Gilman's story, he explains, the Panopticon proved to be a cruel, ingenious cage" that misjudged human reaction to unabated surveillance. The writer argues that the narrator, despite her doctor's ill advice and her husband's dehumanizing imprisoning of her, is successful in freeing herself from her male-imposed shackles, her Panopticon" (Wilson Index).
3. Boa, Elizabeth. "Creepy-Crawlies: Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper' and Kafka's The Metamorphosis." Paragraph 13 (1990): 19-29. **
"Asserts that one reason TYW remains so powerful today is because it provides a 'powerful indictment of a characteristic cultural position,' namely, that men control women and that women are made to feel guilty over their dualistic roles as wife and mother. Thus explains that the narrative illustrates what a 'frustrated women [the narrator] does with anger,' anger from having her rightful responsibilities taken away from her, through 'The Rest Cure,' and anger from being mistreated by her father figure, represented by her husband. Sees the ending, however, as merely a sense of 'false freedom' for the protagonist because ultimately she goes insane" (Lahnstein 76).
4. Beer, Janet. Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Studies in Short Fiction NY: St. Martin's, 1997.
"This collection provides a comparative analysis of the themes and genres of these three turn-of-the-century woman authors who 'had [ . . . ]to negotiate a niche for themselves in the artistic and economic marketplace.' Her concluding essay is on the 1988 BBC adaptation of Gilman's TYW. (Booknews, qtd. in Barnes & Nobles.com)
5. Berkin, Carol Ruth. "Private Woman, Public Woman: The Contradictions of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed. Joanne B Karpinski. NY: G.K. Hall, 1992.
A biographical critique of Gilman's body of work which analogizes a pattern that often appears in Gilman's fiction of a wise older woman mentoring a young woman with Gilman's potential influence on modern feminists. Berkin argues that Gilman "struggled for intellectual and emotional liberation, hampered through much of her life by an internalization of the very split vision of masculine and feminine spheres and destinies that, in her work, she would expose as artificial[ . . . ]. This essay seeks to chart her personal confrontation with feminism, because it is in that experience that she may serve as a model for American women" (Berkin 18).
6. Berkson, Dorothy. "'So We All Became Mothers': Harriet Beecher Stowe, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and the New World of Women's Culture." Feminism, Utopia, and Narrative. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1990. **
"Explains that the works of Harriet Beecher Stowe, [along with] Gilman's Herland deconstruct patriarchal culture by replacing it with a woman's culture and further explains that Stowe and Gilman believed that the only way to save a patriarchal society from its excesses is to place values of motherhood at the center of society. Asserts that Gilman's goal was to 'maternalize' men, therefore making them more nurturing and to encourage women to be more physical and active in the public sphere. Concludes that Gilman's vision of a new man and a new woman is the key to her feminist statement" (Lahnstein 49-50).
7. Crewe, Jonathan. "Queering The Yellow Wallpaper? Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Politics of Form." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature. 14 (1995): 273-93.
Crewe argues that "the phrase 'the captive imagination' draws attention indirectly (and salutarily) to the issue of form in connection with TYW." He argues his point in part by looking at "form," and suggests that "questions of form are compellingly posed by TYW" and that "such questions are unexpectedly revived by queer theory" (274-5). Bases many of his strong points on the shared view of woman's hysteria (in TYW) and queer-ness as pathologies, or "bad form" (289).
8. Dimock, Wai Chee. "Feminism, New Historicism, and the Reader." American Literature 63 (1991): 601-22.
Argues generally about the role of feminist criticism as opposed to New Historicism and the "relation" between the two theories. Begins with an essay by Steven Marcus, "Reading the Illegible" in order to define interpretation and then moves into specific types of interpretation. Analyzes TYW as a text which is "an ideal text for an imaginary New Historicist exercise" as well as for feminist readings. Dimock then performs a New Historicist reading of the text and urges us to "resist" or "make and unmake" such a reading through a feminist reading of considerations of power, professionalism (for Gilman as author), and audience. Finally, argues that by "dramatiz[ing] the disagreement between a New Historicist and a feminist reading not to show that one is victorious over the other but to make a different [ . . . ] point, namely, that the two readings are in fact not at odds [ . . . ] since the two phenomena that they describe turn out to be nonadjacent in the first place" (614). Ultimately seeks to "engender" and politicize "history" without drawing unnecessary polarities.
9. Dock, Julie Bates. "'But One Expects That': Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper' and the Shifting Light of Scholarship." PMLA 111 (1996): 52-65.
Article that surveys the textual differences in various editions of TYW and how those sometimes seemingly insignificant differences have had great effect upon critical readings of the story. Generally points out that, in order to make a strong argument for specific "feminist" or power-based readings, a reader must examine an authoritative text or potentially draw conclusions based not on the text but on editorial decisions and missing text.
10. Delashmit, Margaret and Charles Long. "Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Explicator. 50 (1991): 32-33. **
"Argues that such features as gothic elements and an 'escape through madness' suggest a 'close correspondence' with Jane Eyre not previously noted" (Lahnstein 80).
11. Dock, Julie B. The Yellow Wall-Paper: A Critical Edition and Commentary Casebook. np: Pittsburgh Pennsylvania State UP, 1998.**
The self-proclaimed "first critical edition of Gilman's 'The Yellow Wall-paper,' [is] accompanied by contemporary reviews and previously unpublished letters [. . . ]. Included are a textual commentary, [. . . ] descriptions of all relevant texts, lists of editorial emendations and pre-copy-text substantive variants, a [ . . . ] historical collation that documents all the variants found in important editions after 1892, and a listing of textual sources for more than one hundred reprintings of the story in anthologies and textbooks" (Publisher info, qtd in Barnes & Nobles.com).
12. Girgus, Sam B. "Freedom and Desire: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Kate Chopin." Desire and the Political Unconscious in American Literature: Eros and Literature. NY: St. Martins, 1990. 126-52. **
"Utilizes Gilman's Women and Economics as a social and economic reference to examine Kate Chopin's The Awakening and claims that while both were revolutionary feminist texts, each presents radically different views on how women could achieve equality. Specifically explains that Gilman believed there was an inseparable link between 'the sexual function and the economic function' and thus saw sexual desire as one of woman's worst enemies. Explains that Chopin, on the other hand, believed that desire is a necessity and hence insisted that freedom requires 'a continuing dialog of internal and external forces'" (Lahnstein 88).
13. Golden, Catherine. The Captive Imagination: A Casebook on "The Yellow Wall-paper." NY: Feminist Press, 1992. **
This "critical edition of Gilman's story [ . . . ]includes the illustrations from the original 1892 edition and sections on backgrounds and criticism. Bracketing the collection are two essays [ . . . ]reflecting on the range of responses that both this story and its critics have provoked-- a 'conversation,' Golden notes, 'that becomes increasingly more complex as critics openly debate central aspects of the story with each other.' Many of the critical essays to which they refer are included here, making it possible for students to follow and participate in the ongoing conversation" (John Ernest, American Literature, qtd. in Barnes & Nobles.com).
14. Hades, Pamela White. "Madness and Medicine: The Graphomaniac's Cure." Literature and Medicine 9 (1990): 181-93. **
"Examines how Gilman, in TYW, and Evelyn Waugh, in The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold, treat mental breakdowns, emphasizing the very different approaches taken by each. Concludes that in TYW the protagonist's description of her room suggests 'infantile preoccupation' and 'a deeply wounded sexuality'" (Lahnstein 77).
15. Howe, Harriet. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman -- As I Knew Her." Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed. Joanne B Karpinski. NY: G.K. Hall, 1992. 73-84.
An essay written after Gilman's death in 1935 for the magazine Equal Rights: Independent Feminist Weekly about Gilman's personal magnetism and passion for her causes. Describes several anecdotal stories of occasions the author met Gilman at a lecture or personal visit and admires Gilman's honesty, strong voice, idealism and "super-human endurance." Concludes with the eulogizing statement: "Death did not seize her, an unwilling victim. She went resolutely to meet it, with serene self-determination, as she met all things, gallantly, like a soldier on the field of battle" (Howe 83-4).
16. Hedges, Elaine R. "'Out at Last'? 'The Yellow Wallpaper' after Two Decades of Feminist Criticism." Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed. Joanne B. Karpinski. NY: G. K. Hall, 1992. 222-33.
A survey of the feminist criticism that surrounded Gilman's republished story, TYW, from 1973-1992 when the essay appeared in The Captive Imagination: A Casebook on "The Yellow Wallpaper." Highlights major movements in criticism of the story, such as Gilbert and Gubar's treatment in Madwoman in the Attic. Concludes that "despite difference of opinion which sometimes appear, TYW is a story about a nineteenth-century white, middle-class woman, but it addresses a 'woman's' situation in so far as women as a group must still contend with male power in medicine, marriage and indeed most, if not all, of culture and that the post-structuralist project to problematize and displace identity is difficult to reconcile with the feminist project to reclaim the story" (Hedges 231).
17. Hume, Beverly A. "Gilman's 'Interminable Grotesque': The Narrator of The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction 28 (1991): 477-84.
"Argues that the narrator of TYW misreads the paper because she fails to see the 'comically grotesque texture of her tale.' Further suggests that because of her misreading, she becomes a grotesque figure herself, thereby transforming her narrative into 'a disturbing, startling, and darkly ironic tale about nineteenth-century American woman'" (Lahnstein 81). **
18. Johnston, Georgia. "Exploring Lack and Absence in the Body/Text: Charlotte Perkins Gilman Prewriting Irigaray." Women's Studies 21 (1992): 75-86.
Explores French Feminist Luce Irigaray's scholarship, providing a good summary of the basic ideas of her theories (from her discussions of Freud to Lacan). Then, applies Irigaray's theoretical reading to TYW "as a text that also prioritizes multiplicity and reflection" (78). Explores ways in which Gilman's "presentation of the hysteric contradicts Freudian theory" (78). Argues that, like Irigaray, "Gilman's story questions the position of woman within the patriarchal subject/object economy" (79) and applies other principles of Irigaray's theories to Gilman's treatment of the female hysteric, arguing, finally, that Gilman's theories pre-write Irigaray's radical 20th century views by almost a hundred years.
19. Kessler, Carol Farley. "Recent Work on Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Belles-Lettres 10 (1995): 21-3. **
"A discussion of works by and about the early 20th-century novelist Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The writer contends that although Gilman had a special brilliance in her analysis of gender institutions, we must take into account the limits of her vision, which was aimed at and informed by a white, Anglo-American middle-class of largely Protestant belief. She concludes that, as is evident in some of the books examined here, Gilman's works still have the power to provoke thoughtful discussion" (Wilson Index).
20. Knight, Denise D. " Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Forgotten First Publication." ANQ 7 (1994): 223-32. **
"A verification of 'To D.G.' as CPG's first publication. The poem appeared in the May 20, 1880 issue of the New England Journal of Education. The identification is substantiated by Perkins' diary entry alluding to its forthcoming publication and by the actual appearance of the poem followed by 'C.A.P.' Points out that these are the initials of Charlotte Anna Perkins, Gilman's maiden name" (Wilson Index).
21. Kasmer, Lisa." Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Symptomatic Reading." Literature & Psychology 36 (1990): 1-15. **
"Defines 'feminine' moments in the text as those 'that disrupt the male desire, allowing the desires of the woman to emerge.' Explains more specifically that the narrator is imprisoned within her husband's discourse, but that her desires can be detected in various symptomatic moments recorded in her journal, particularly when she begins to describe the yellow wallpaper. Further explains that her desires point toward a 'liberating and disruptive force' that represents her unconscious. [Argues that] by the end, the narrator begins to break free of the confines of her husband's language, but finally loses her newly found language abilities and is thus reduced to madness (Lahnstein 78).
22. Karpinski, Joanne B. "When the Marriage of True Minds Admits Impediments: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and William Dean Howells." Patrons and Protegees: Gender, Friendship, and Writing in Nineteenth-Century America. Ed. Shirley Marchalonis. New Brunswick Rutgers UP, 1994.
The essay is from the collection described by Marilyn R. Chandler this way: "Each of the essays traces the course of a notable partnership and assesses its importance for both writers with respect to personal motivations and social pressures. [ . . . ] None offers anything so simplistic as a mere assertion that the woman was the intellectual and literary equal of the man, or indeed his better, though in some cases that conclusion is easily drawn. Rather they examine the respective strategies of both partners as evidenced in letters, textual borrowings, and public acknowledgments.[ . . . ] Of the many books that currently invite us to reassess the literary history of nineteenth-century America[ . . . ] this is among the most provocative in the problems it poses and the revision it achieves. The authors' use of gender as a category of analysis produces responsible, revealing, and sometimes startling results, collectively providing a wide reaching model for further reassessments of this kind" (American Literature, qtd. in Barnes & Nobles.com).
23. ---. Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman NY: G. K. Hall., 1992.
Includes reviews and critical theory of Gilman's work. Essays included are:
Reviews and Contemporary Comment: "Charlotte Perkins Stetson: A Daring Humorist of Reform," Anonymous; "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Dynamic Social Philosophy," Anonymous; "The Woman Who Saw It First," Alexander Black; "'Charlotte Perkins Gilman' from Women Have Told," Amy Wellington; "Charlotte Perkins Gilman - As I Knew Her," Harriet Howe; "The Hour and the Woman," Annie L. Muzzey; "The Economic Dependence of Women", Vernon Lee; "Mrs. Gilman's Idea of Home," Olivia H. Dunbar; "The Ideal Home," Anonymous; "Review of Concerning Children," Anonymous; "Mrs. Gilman's Volume on Children," Anonymous; "Review of Human Work," S.M. Francis.
Modern Criticism: " Darwinism and the Woman Question: The Evolving Views of Charlotte Perkins Gilman," Lois N. Magner; "'Begin Again!': The Cutting Social Edge of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Gentle Religious Optimism", Frank G. Kirkpatrick; "'Overwriting' the Rest Cure: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Literary Escape from S. Weir Mitchell's Fictionalization of Women," Catherine Golden; "Looking Backward: From Herland to Gulliver's Travels," Elizabeth Keyser; "Victorian Daughters: The Lives and Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Olive Schreiner," Barbara Scott Winkler; "On the Diaries of Charles Walter Stetson," Mary Armfield Hill; "When the Marriage of True Minds Admits Impediments: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and William Dean Howells," Joanne B. Karpinski; "'Out at Last'? 'The Yellow Wallpaper' after Two Decades of Feminist Criticism," Elaine R. Hedges; "'Making a Change': Strategies of Subversion in Gilman's Journalism and Short Fiction," Shelley Fisher Fishkin; "Reconstructing Here Also: On the Later Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman," Gary Scharnhorst.
24. Knight, Denise. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Indianapolis: MacMillan, 1997.
"An overview and assessment which investigates the early, autobiographical Forerunner and other stories to pinpoint the writer's ideology and advocacy of the principles of nationalism and reform Darwinism. A separate section evaluates 'The Yellow Wallpaper,' placing it in the context of Gilman's larger corpus. Statements by Gilman about her work, as well as observations of Gilman's friend and colleague Amy Wellington, and critical essays are included" (Booknews, qtd. Barnes & Nobles.com). **
25. Lahnstein, Bobby L. The Rediscovery of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography of Research, 1956-1991. MA Thesis. U of North Carolina, 1994.
A Master's Thesis that surveys the critical reception of Gilman's major works from 1973 to 1991. Contains all of the journal and book-length discussions of Gilman's work during this time. Also contains a brief synopsis of the implications of that work.
26. Lancaster, Jane. "'I Could Easily Have Been an Acrobat': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Providence Ladies' Sanitary Gymnasium, 1881-1884." ATQ 8 (1994): 33-52.
Details Gilman's interest in exercise as a way of improving the mind and spirit of women. Describes Gilman's "attendance at the Providence Ladies' Sanitary Gymnasium" (of which she wrote her first published piece of non-fiction). The essay gives a history of the story of Gilman's mental "rest cure," describes the history of Gilman's struggles with "neurasthenia" and consequent battles with medical doctors. Lancaster relates the general history of the exercise movement of the time, detailing three "schools" of thought (one of which Gilman's aunt Catherine Beecher was a proponent). Lancaster also details Gilman's discussion of her physical fitness in her diaries and the relationship that Gilman's belief in physicality had upon her first marriage to Charles Stetson.
27. Lane, Ann J. To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. NY: Pantheon, 1990.
"Assesses Gilman's work in order to convey a sense of the full contours of her intellectual legacy, without which the significance of Gilman's life cannot be understood. Also examines the role of Gilman's relationships with her father, mother, three close female friends, both her husbands and her daughter in her life and work. Generally determines that Gilman at the present time is appreciated as a sociologist and a social critic, though her large scope and creative imagination are underappreciated. Thus, recommends a careful reading of the full body of her work to appreciate the immense breadth of her vision. Includes a detailed discussion of her full-length works, particularly Women and Economics, Concerning Children, Human Work, and her three utopian novels, claiming that it was here that her ideas came together in a 'systematic and cogent way'" (Lahnstein 29).
28. Lant, Kathleen Margaret. "The Rape of the Text: Charlotte Gilman's Violation of Herland." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 9 (1990): 291-308. **
"Asserts that Gilman proposed to reshape the consciousness of her audience and to provide a literature that represented woman, and human nature, more truthfully, but [that she] was up against a predominantly masculine literary tradition. In the case of Herland, finds that because Gilman emphasizes sexual tension, which underlies male-female relationships, her feminine vision is distorted. Thus, patriarchal values are superimposed on the matriarchal values that Gilman tried to assert. Concludes that Gilman was merely a victim of her literary time and place and that her failure to escape the influence of the patriarchy was due to the limitations of the discourse available to her" (Lahnstein 51).
29. Levitas, Ruth. " 'Who Holds the Hose?': Domestic Labor in the Work of Bellamy, Gilman and Morris." Utopian Studies 6 (1995): 65-84. **
"Levitas explores the views of Edward Bellamy, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and William Morris on the issue of domestic labor. These authors, she explains, raise questions of whether the problem of domestic labor is one of the intrinsic nature of the work or the social relations under which it is performed. She examines Bellamy's Looking Backward and Equality, Gilman's Women and Economics and The Home: Its Work and Influence, and Morris's News from Nowhere. [Levitas] shows that all three writers challenged the conditions under which domestic labor is performed by insisting on the fundamental importance of the economic independence of women. She argues that Morris's position, though now usually read as antifeminist because of his endorsement of the sexual division of labor, is a useful qualification to the positions of the others in that it rejects their productivist assumptions and recognizes the skill and value of women's work to a greater extent" (Wilson Index).
30. Lewis, Margaret and David Sebberson. "The Rhetoricality of Economic Theory: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Thorstein Veblen." Journal of Economic Issues 31.2 (1997): 417. **
"Part of a special issue that presents papers from the 1997 Association for Evolutionary Economics meeting. CPG and Thorstein Veblen were economists who were engaged in developing note only alternative theories of economics but also alternative modes of theorizing about economics. They wrote at a time when American philosophy was seriously challenging enlightenment thought with pragmatism[ . . . ]. By grounding their economics in pragmatism, Gilman and Veblen reconceived economics as a human science situated within human action instead of an enlightenment science that objectified economics and abstracted it from human action. This pragmatic mode of economic science required a new mode of discourse. Pragmatic, critical, and aimed at comprehension and action, the new discourse that Gilman and Veblen invented was rhetoric" (Wilson Index).
31. Lloyd, Brian. "Feminism, Utopian and Scientific: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Prison of the Familiar." American Studies 39 (1998): 93-113. **
32. Lutz, Tom. "Women and Economics in the Writings of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Edith Wharton." American Nervousness, 1903: An Anecdotal History. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1991. 219-43. **
"Offers a study of turn-of-the-century American neurasthenia, a disease considered 'most American' as well as 'a mark of Anglo-American sensitivity and high-culture.' Examines changes in neurasthenia's relation to 'systems of prestige, to the professional ideology of physicians, and to basic cultural constructions of gender, economics, intellectual production and the supernatural' by examining the appropriation of neurasthenic discourse by Gilman and Edith Wharton. Makes significant use of Women and Economics, The Home: Its Work and Influence as well as Herland to illustrate that Gilman herself was well-versed in the discourse of neurasthenia. Further claims that while Gilman, in TYW, was not attacking the neurasthenic understanding of sickness, her story had a huge effect on the disease, 'eventually chasing it right out of existence.' Also, briefly addresses the issue of production and consumption in Gilman's work, explaining that she was not a critic of consumer capitalism, but that her main concern was with changing the relation of women to economic life rather than the structure of capitalism" (Lahnstein 30).
33. Magner, Lois N. "Darwinism and the Woman Question: The Evolving Views of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed. Joanne B Karpinski. NY: G.K. Hall, 1992.
Magner argues that "the question of what Darwinism meant to women has been largely ignored. In order to rectify this omission, her essay use[s] Gilman's writings to illuminate the feminist response to Darwinism and compare[s] her ideas with those of the best-known exponent of social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer" (Magner 116).
34. Masse, Michelle A. "Gothic Repetition: Husbands, Horrors, and Things That Go Bump in the Night." Signs 15 (1990): 679-709. **
"Argues that repetition in the Gothic is an effort to relive or reactivate the trauma of being denied autonomy in a patriarchal society. Thus, through its use of repetition, TYW exemplifies the central issues of authority and the inability to achieve a voice in the 'marital Gothic.' Claims that by entering the world of the wallpaper the narrator has achieved some form of escape, although it is only 'partial' as well as 'destructive and deeply ironic,' and adds that such an escape functions as a severe indictment of authority, which is represented by the husband/physician (Lahnstein 78).
35. O'Brien, Mary M. "Autobiography and Liminality: Which Story Does Charlotte Perkins Gilman Choose to Tell?" Women's Studies 20 (1991): 37-49.
Analyzes the "complications" in "discerning who CPG was" that are made by Gilman's volume of writing, especially her autobiography, The Living of CPG. Argues that CPG was, herself, a liminal character in her own family, in society, and that she "was a person who defined new and unorthodox roles for herself" (37). To discuss how we can decide on the reality of Gilman, O'Brien analyzes first the Perkins family; she then looks at Gilman's "unconventional" wife and motherhood. Argues that Gilman's process of self-definition in all of these roles is, like autobiography, the process of definition. Looks at the autobiography as both a realistic recounting of her own life and as a way of redefining that life. Discusses the structure of the autobiography, its conventional and unconventional aspects, and Gilman's motivation for writing a history of her own life. The essay concludes that "In Living, Gilman interprets a new role for herself [. . . ] and that "in the 'ceaseless self-definition' of personal narrative, Gilman delineates her public self" (46).
36. Oliver, Lawrence J. and Gary Scharnhorst. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman v. Ambrose Bierce: the Literary Politics of Gender in Fin-de-Siecle California." Journal of the West 32.2 (1993): 52-60.
Documents the conflict between Bierce and several women writers in California that appeared in Bierce's column, "The Tattler." Argues that the battle of wits "may fairly illustrate, if only in the extreme, a pattern of gender conflict among Western writers at the turn of the century" (52). Includes the full text of a letter that Gilman wrote to Brander Matthews wondering if there was a "literary tribunal before which a writer [Bierce] of particularly scurrilous and evil habits may not be brought, exposed and punished" (53). Bierce's habits of cruel comments about Gilman is described, with several direct quotations. The authors do point out that Bierce mocked many male authors as well, revealing that "His attack on the young San Francisco poet David Lezinsky was so severe and relentless that many people held Bierce responsible for the fellow's death" (55). Finally, argues that Gilman may have had the last laugh in modeling her villain in "Herland" after Bierce. An interesting article that details the extent that Gilman was struggling against authority of many kinds during the period when she first began writing seriously.
37. Owens, E. Suzanne. " The Ghostly Double behind the Wallpaper in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Haunting the House of Fiction: Feminist Perspectives on Ghost Stories by American Women. Eds Lynette Carpenter et al. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P., 1991. 64-79. **
"Acknowledges that feminist critics see TYW 'as a study of psychology and sexual politics grounded in autobiographical realism,' but argues that there exists a 'second story,' a supernatural tale, that is drawn from Gothic conventions typical of Edgar Allen Poe and Charlotte Brontë. Further claims that late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century readers were familiar with the genre of the ghost story and thus read TYW as such. Asserts that the narrator's 'creeping' supports the notion that the ghost that occupies the room and/or wallpaper has taken possession of the narrator; therefore the identity of Jane is that of the ghost" (Lahnstein 81-2).
38. Rubinson, Lillian S. "Killing Patriarchy: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Murder Mystery, and Post-Feminist Propaganda." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 10 (1991): 273-85. **
"Believes that in the 1920's, near the end of Gilman's career, women had achieved a certain amount of emancipation and were thus experiencing, much like today's postfeminists, a sense that feminism was over. Argues that Gilman did not agree with this current of thought, but realized that her earlier methods of reform would not work any longer; therefore, she chose to present her feminist views through the popular genre of the murder mystery. Further explains that Gilman's efforts went unrecognized since the murder mystery 'Unpunished' was never published.(3) Concludes that this period in history, as well as in Gilman's career, is proleptic of women's situation today: feminism has certainly made progress, but should not yet be considered dead" (Lahnstein 52).
39. Scharnhorst, Gary. Charlotte Perkins Gilman.(4) Twayne's United States Author Series. Boston: Twayne, 1985.
"Focuses on Gilman as a litterateur and considers her verse, fiction, and nonfiction as complementary bodies of literature. Deals primarily with Gilman's career as an author and lecturer, thus relinquishing 'more intimate' examinations of her life to others. Claims that her poetry and fiction both foreshadowed and amplified the explicit didacticism apparent in her nonfiction. Traces Gilman's career chronologically and thematically and examines Gilman's reception by her contemporaries" (Lahnstein 24).
40. ---. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography. NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985.
This reference material is close to a complete listing of all of CPG's works. Since it was published in 1985, some material has been found that is not included here, but otherwise, Scharnhorst's guide to Gilman's work is an invaluable asset to a Gilman scholar. Lists many pieces that are not in print, that can be found in the Schlesinger library collection. Scharnhorst arranges the citations in an easy to understand format and lists all reprintings of every work. He also lists a section of "selected criticism."
41. ---. "Reconstructing Here Also: On the Later Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed. Joanne B Karpinski. NY: G.K. Hall, 1992.
An interesting discussion of the history of the volume of poetry that Gilman meant to have published, along with her autobiography, after her death in 1935. Critically analyzes some of the poems that are listed in a tentative table of contents of Here Also which Gilman prepared for Amy Wellington and which "survives in folder 185 of the Gilman Papers in the Schlesinger Library" (Scharnhorst 263).
42. Showalter, Elaine. "Killing the Angel in the House: The Autonomy of Women Writers." The Antioch Review 50 (1992): 207-20.
This seems to be an early exploration of the themes of madness that Gilbert and Gubar define in Madwoman in the Attic. Showalter begins her discussion of Gilman's work by looking at Virginia Woolf's. Defines, through Woolf's 1931 speech "Professions for Women," the struggles for women authors' autonomy, also defines the "angel in the house" as the "oppressive phantom [ . . . ] the spirit of Victorian womanhood" (207). Discusses Woolf's "literary theory which had the effect of neutralizing her own conflict between the desire to present a woman's whole experience, and the fear of such a revelation" (208). Contrasts Woolf's fear of anger and madness in the works of women writers to Gilman's characterization of madness in TYW. Argues that "the battle to stay alive, to fight for one's own emotional independence against the smothering embrace of the Angel, is fought repeatedly in women's literature" (210) and that TYW is a "brilliant" example of that battle. Showalter then contrasts madness and passion in TYW with Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway. Finally, she says that madness "is neither a dynamic nor a liberated response, but a ruse. And as ruses go, it is a very costly one. It would be cheaper to kill the Angel in the House" (212). .
43. Shumaker, Conrad. "Reading, Reform and the Audience: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Unreadable Wallpaper." Arizona Quarterly 47 (1991): 81-93. **
"Asserts that the 'realist reformer' writer must present a representative of a larger group in order for the audience to accept the character as a real human being and further that such a character 'must seem to be representative of a group whose situation needs reforming.' This dual purpose creates a tension between the female writer's roles as realist and reformer because realism necessarily demands a respect for conventions, but to reform women's roles convention itself is the very thing that must be attacked. Thus claims that if Gilman's audience admitted that the narrator, in the case of TYW, was realistic then they would have had to admit that the conventional views of sexual relationships were not accurate. Concludes that this would have threatened women by forcing them to doubt their
own perception of reality" (Lahnstein 82).
44. Wiesenthal, C. S. "'Unheard-of Contradictions': The Language of Madness in C. P. Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Wascana Review 25.2 (1990): 1-17. **
"Asserts that while critics acknowledge Gilman's apparently contradictory use, in TYW, of a first-person narrator to tell the story of the degenerating mind, such contradictions can be seen as a metaphor for women's discourse as well as the problems faced by a nineteenth-century wife. Further observes that by metaphorically 'deflecting in graphic relief her mad narrator's unintelligible "alphabets" of psychobabble' onto the wallpaper, Gilman is able to elicit the language of someone who is progressively losing her mind, while at the same time using a sane, first-person narrative structure" (Lahnstein 79).
45. Winkler, Barbara Scott. "Victorian Daughters: The Lives and Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Olive Schreiner." Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed. Joanne B Karpinski. NY: G.K. Hall, 1992.
An essay which attempts to analyze the issues of enduring
significance that Gilman and fellow feminist Schreiner felt strongly
about and spoke frequently on, in the context of their nineteenth-century
lives. Finally argues that "both feminists felt sure that
women's economic freedom would only improve relations between
the sexes by removing the corrupting element of barter from love
and marriage and using women's untapped potential in service
to the world" (Winkler 181).
Bard, Ruth Anne. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Psychobiography." Diss. Adelphi U. 1996. Dissertation Abstracts International. 56(12): 7038B.
Delashmit, Margaret Victoria. "The Patriarchy and Women: A Study of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper'" Diss. U of Tennessee. 1990. Dissertation Abstracts International. 51(12): 4120A.
Sledge, Martha Lee. "Writing Against Their Cultures: The Autobiographical Writings of Edith Wharton, H.D., Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Ellen Glasgow." Diss. Emory U. 1992. Dissertation Abstracts International. 52(12): 4334A.
Thomson, Jennifer Ruth. "After All There Was Nothing Impossible in It: Polemic and Utopia in the Writing of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Diss. Marquette U. 1996. Dissertation Abstracts International. 57(12): 5154-55.
I have arranged these websites in order of usefulness. I have listed all the websites that I could find on Gilman, doing a search of the seven "largest" search engines (Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, Yahoo, Alta Vista, Lycos and HotBot). So far, Gilman's representation on the Internet is somewhat minimal, but with the growing scholarship about her, it is likely that even her representation on the Internet will grow in the next few years. Some of the sites are very simplistic, but several top ranked sites would be useful to a graduate level researcher; other sites are more for high school age researchers for very general information. Of course, the decision as to what is useful is completely subjective, but I have tried to base my definition of usefulness on three criteria. The site is useful if it: 1. Provides a large amount of research and/or educational information;. 2. Is well constructed and attractive; 3. Is from a recognizable source.
In addition to these sites, which are already published, I include a plug to my own Gilman site currently in development at <http://www.womenwriters.net/domesticgoddess;. This site already features biography and criticism of a number of other Victorian women writers and will soon include a section on Gilman. In addition to these websites, most of the manuscript and letter collections that feature Gilman material have webpages; for URL's see page 13 of this bibliography. Charlotte Perkins Gilman Newsletter. Ed. Denise Knight. 1995-1998. 3 October 1998. <http://orchard.cortland.edu/gilmanNews/gilmanPage.html>.
This is the kickoff site for the newsletter's online publications since 1995. Previous issues of the newsletter must be ordered by mail. The newsletter features Gilman stories, criticism of Gilman works, and lists of new articles and books about Gilman. A great site for finding out about the current trends in Gilman studies.
The Yellow Wall-Paper Site. Ed. Daniel Anderson and Nick Evans. 1996. University of Texas, Austin. 4 October 1998. <http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~daniel/amlit/wallpaper/ wallpaper.html>.
One of the best and most complete Gilman sites on the Internet. This site was compiled by a class and professor at University of Texas, Austin. The site contains links to various other Gilman resources, as well as commentary from the students who helped design the page, and links to a discussion of the movie version of the short story. Some of the comments are simple and some complex; many of them have the raw quality of journal entries and some are much more polished. Also contains links to online versions of the story and Gilman's essay "Why I Wrote the 'Yellow Wall-Paper'".
Works by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ed Mary Mark Ockerbloom. A Celebration of Women Writers. October 3, 1998. <http://www.cs.cmu.edu/People/mmbt/women /gilmancp-bibliography.html>.
This site includes a good bibliography of Gilman's work, although the list is not exhaustive, by any means. It contains links to the works that can be found online, and has a photo of Gilman.
Suffrage Songs and Verses. Ed Mary Mark Ockerbloom. A Celebration of Women Writers. 4 October 1998. <http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~mmbt/women/gilman/suffrage/suffrage.html>.
This is an online collection of many of Gilman's poems, part of the general collection of Gilman works that can be found online.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman: 1860-1935, American Social Activist and Writer. Gale.com Online Bookstore. 3 October 1998. <http://www.gale.com/gale/cwh/gilman.html>.
This page is a biographical sketch of Gilman's life and work. The site is part of an online bookstore and cites U-X-L Biographies, a CD-Rom program, as its source. I have not seen the CD but imagine it would be a good general reference, if this sample is any indication of the type of work that the whole CD contains. The site could be useful to someone seeking introductory information on Gilman; but, it is really very general information about Gilman, not much more than an encyclopedia might offer.
Documents of Social Change-- Student Excerpts. Connections Program at Smith College. 4 October 1998. <http://webster.commnet.edu/HP/pages/connect/students.htm>.
This is an interesting site for people who are exploring TYW in a classroom setting. Some of the site's contents seem rather simplistic, ranging from plot summary to some good critiques, but it is a good site for possibly opening a dialogue among first-time readers of "The Yellow Wall-Paper". The site features commentary from students of the Smith Connections Program. The general Connections site also contains links to individual student papers (two) which are featured on this list in separate entries.
Biographical Information: Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 4 October 1998. <http://homepages. tig.com.au /~juniper /gilIndex.html>.
This is an attractive site, contains some biography of Gilman and links to online versions of "The Yellow Wall-paper" and "Why I Wrote the Yellow Wall-Paper". This site is good as an example of online primary text reference materials that might particularly appeal to high school aged students as well as more experienced scholars.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Encarta. 4 October 1998. <http://www.encarta.com/Index/ conciseIndex/46/04616000.htm>.
This is a very short biographical entry from the Encarta online encyclopedia. It contains a short list of Gilman's works. The Encarta site, however, could be a useful site for general simple research on other aspects of Gilman's life, which is why I have included the citation in this reference work.
A Psychoanalytical Approach to Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wall-Paper.' Ed. Bryan D.Bourn. 1995. Bryan D. Bourn's Home Page. 4 October 1998. <http://www.usinternet.com/users/bdbourn/yellow.htm>.
This is a part of Bourn's writing samples; he has a degree in English Education and is a law student. The essay is, as its title suggests, a psychoanalytic approach to the story and would be useful as an example of one of the most basic readings that can come out of the story.
The Yellow Wallpaper': How We Perceive the Husband. Brenda A. Gadarowski Connections Program at Smith College. 4 October 1998. <http://webster.commnet.edu/ HP/pages/connect/brenda.htm>.
A student essay that analyzes the character John in Gilman's most famous short story. Discusses how controlling John is over her as both husband and doctor. Another very basic reading of the story, but useful as a basis for a beginner's approach to analyzing the story.
The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Newsletter is published annually by the Gilman Society and since 1995 it has been available on the Internet. It features short stories, criticism and current Gilman event announcements.
Newsletter membership information:
Denise D. Knight
English Dept., SUNY Cortland,
Cortland, NY 13045.
The deadline for Newsletter items is April 1 of each year.
Webpage URL: <http://orchard.cortland.edu/gilman News/gilmanPage.html>
The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Society
Catherine J. Golden
Amazon.Com Website: Charlotte Perkins Gilman Search. 1998. Amazon.Com Online Bookstore. 3 October 1998. <http://www.amazon.com>.
Barnes and Nobles.Com Website: Charlotte Perkins Gilman Search. 1998. Barnes and Nobles Online Bookstore. 3 October 1998. <http://www.barnesandnobles.com>.
Karpinski, Joanne B. Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman NY: G. K. Hall., 1992.
Lahnstein, Bobby L. The Rediscovery of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography of Research, 1956-1991. MA Thesis. U of North Carolina, 1994.
Lane, Ann J. To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. NY: Pantheon, 1990.
Scharnhorst, Gary. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography. NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985.
Wilson Index Abstracts. 1998. Electronic. Texas A&M
Evans Lib., College Station. 7 October 1998.
2. I do not have a complete list of those works that appeared in the Forerunner but there is a complete collection of these works at the Women's Historical Reclamation Collection in San Diego (see page 13). See also page 17 of this guide for reprinting info.
4. I have included this work in my citations, even though it is one that appeared before the 1990 parameter that I have set for my bibliography, because it contains an extensive bibliography of Gilman's work and should be listed here so that interested researchers can find sources that are pre-1990.